Clojure Record Heirarchy

In Clojure, if you want a basic OOP behavior without killing yourself to fully implement Java classes and interfaces in Clojure, the preferred technique is to use records. Sometimes implementing protocols in records suits your needs, mostly due to speed of code execution. However, if you want polymorphism with your records, then multimethods are where it’s at.

Admittedly, multimethods are very flexible, so the technique I’ll show you is one of many techniques you could use. The basic pattern I use for inheritance with records, is to use the derive  command with keywords that are kept as a value in the record. For example,

type  is used to track isa  relationships of ::food  and ::fruit . derive  is used to set ::food  as the parent of ::fruit . Notice the use of custom constructors to set default values for type  in the records.

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Clojure Agents

Most of the time, Clojure does not need locks like Java and other languages. This is because of atom s, ref s, and agent s. I’ll focus on Clojure agents in this short post.

Agents are handled in  single-threaded queues. By lining up calls of a function in a queue, no locks are needed. When combined with send-off , deadlocks won’t happen.

Here’s a quick example.

A few things are going on here, so let’s look at them.

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Quick OOP Example

Want some Object Oriented Programming in Clojure? Here’s a quick example.

Let’s create a dog object.

Now let’s use the dog object.

See, OOP in Clojure is fairly simple. This sample uses protocols with records, but you can add polymorphism with just a little extra work. For polymorphism, use records and multimethods.

Razvan’s ‘defrecord’ Example

I absolutely love the user razvan’s Clojure defrecord example over at stackoverflow, so I copied it here. I know I’ll never find it again if I don’t. Look at the original over on stackoverflow at this link.

Here’s the example …

Clojure defrecord example:

If you’re looking for more information on combining protocols with records in Clojure, then Matthew Boston has the blog for you!

pr and prn

NOTE: All the code in this tutorial can be quickly tested at the REPL using the command lein repl  to start a REPL to test with.

One of the first things you learn when learning clojure is print  and println . For example,

That’s probably the first Clojure program you ever wrote. Maybe you wrote this variation.

Because println  or print are the first ways learned of displaying output in Clojure, most Clojure developers continue using them when debugging code. Nothing wrong with that. But sometimes it is better to use a more specialized tool.

In steps the prn  and pr  commands. These two commands are tailored for printing objects. At first glance, they appear to work the same as print  and println . However, they actually show more information in some instances.

If using print  or println , the \n  in the following code quietly gets replaced by the action of a new line being printed.

When pr  or prn  are used, the two characters \  and n  are displayed instead of an actual new line. This is very handy when hidden characters are fowling up your layout, or needed to be visible when debugging code.

Final note: The only difference between pr  and prn , is that prn  prints a new line after the objects it is printing out.

 

Code-based Migrations with Migratus in Clojure

Migratus is a wonderful migration tool for Clojure. You can use it on its own, or if you have a Luminus project, it is already included.

There are a few areas that could use some extra tutorials, though. One of them is code-based migrations. Especially, examples on how to modify the database would be nice.

Here’s a quick explanation of how to modify the database with a code-based migration in Migratus.

First, create an *.edn file in the folder with the regular migrations. It takes the same format as other migrations, so you can really just change the extension of one of your created migrations to ‘.edn’ and change the contents.

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Clojure Redis Pub/Sub with Carmine

You can save a lot of time, money, and frustration by using prewritten libraries and tools when making your full stack apps. One such tool is Redis. Redis is a server that works on most platforms for server-side caching, pub/sub, messaging, Lua scripting, and data structure storage. It is thread-safe, loves puppies and is good with small children.

Seriously, even if you just use Redis as your cache, you’ll save a lot of frustration and make your app scalable.

This tutorial gives an example of using Redis for pub/sub, also known as Publish/Subscribe. All this will be done using Clojure’s Carmine library. (Additional documentation for Carmine found here.

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Clojure Mount

Once you learn Clojure (or any programming language) well enough to tackle a large project, you are going to run into lifecycle, dependency, and state management issues.

Two great resources for handling lifecycles, dependency, and state in Clojure apps are Mount and Component. I use Mount for my projects, but both are popular solutions. This post is about tolitius/Mount.

Simple Mount Example

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Java Servlets Written in Clojure

Yes, you can write Java Servlets in Clojure.

Create a Clojure Servlet project with the following command.

The important parts of the command are ‘luminus’, which is the framework used to create the Servlet, and ‘+war’, which adds uberwar and Servlet routes to the project. This creates a file called ‘handler.clj’ that replaces the traditional Java Servlet file. The configurations for the Clojure Servlet are found in ‘project.clj’ in the :uberwar  section of the configurations.

By default the lein command above creates a project that will build a WAR file called my-clj-servlet.war, and when deployed will deploy in the my-clj-servlet context, meaning on a default installation of Tomcat you would find the link at http://localhost:8080/my-clj-servlet/

It is important to note that the resulting project from the above lein command actually won’t work as a Servlet, yet. But, we’ll fix that below. The project is configured in the hopes that you can run it from a Servlet container or as a standalone app, and with some massaging, you could. However, this tutorial only focuses on how to get the project compiling as a Java Servlet written in Clojure. If there is enough interest, I’ll write another tutorial on how to get the default project working as a standalone app, and a Servlet.

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HTML Email from Clojure

As mentioned in my other post about plaintext emails, I recommend using the Apache Commons Email library when sending email from Clojure apps.  First up, you need to add the dependency to ‘project.clj’

Next, your HTML email has both an HTML version and the alternative plaintext version of the email. Notice, all you have to do is create an instance of HtmlEmail and then call the set and send methods on it using ‘doto’. Pretty easy.

There are more examples and the javadocs over at the Apache Commons site. However, this should be a basic enough example to get you started.